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What has always driven my work is a desire to design and construct intricate things. These things can be as delicate and light as the flying model airplanes with which I competed in my youth or as big as the studio in which I paint. Everything I design is deeply researched and detailed.

To invent the machines in my paintings, I have researched historic machines and mechanical devices such as steam engines and early airplanes and antique mechanical toys which are often simply miniature versions of the real thing. I have developed the ability to “invent” nonsensical, but working, machines. I construct working models of these "inventions" for reference while painting. Sometimes, I construct models that may inspire new paintings.

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